The skin is an organ that exists in the outermost layer of the body. This skin is maintained elastic and smooth by keeping moisture. Sufficient water content is needed for healthy skin. The skin barrier must be present in order to prevent water loss of the skin. Our experiments were carried out using a natural extract to increasing skin moisturizing. Salicornia was used as a natural extract. Salicornia (salicornia herbacea L.) has been widely used in folk medicine plant since ancient. Therefore, in this study, we have conducted experiments to confirm that moisturizing by enhancing the skin barrier of salicornia.
2. Methods and Results
All experiments were used to HaCaT and human dermal fibroblast. Salicornia is extracted with 70% ethanol. In cytotoxicity test of HaCaT and human dermal fibroblast, we confirmed more than 80% viability at all concentration. Therefore, all experiments in the next step were used highest concentration of 100 and 200㎍/㎖. Cornified envelope and Transglutaminase-1 expression was increased when the treated salicornia extracts. A result of RT-PCR performing to check the expression of involucrin and filaggrin and TIMP-1, expression of these factors increased similar to the positive control when the treated salicornia extracts. Expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-1 decreased dose dependently. Also, hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycan were increased dose-dependently. Therefore, these results are indicated that a salicornia extract is effective in skin barrier strengthen and moisturizing.
3. Discussion and Conclusion
The skin is damaged in various ways. Damaged skin have weak skin barrier and increase water loss. In addition, the damaged skin caused trouble such as acne and corneous. So, we are investigated in enhancing the skin barrier and moisturizing capacity to using salicornia. Salicornia extract was increased to expression of cornified envelope, transglutaminase-1, involucin and filaggrin. Cornified envelope plays a role of a physical barrier in the skin. Transglutaminase-1 is the most important factor to make a cornified envelope. Also, cornified envelope has been formed crosslinked proteins such as involucrin. Filaggrin plays the role of join together the keratin in keratinocyte. Therefore increasing expression of above factor may be enhanced skin barrier. Salicornia extract was decreased to expression of MMP-1 and increased to expression TIMP-1. Inhibition of MMP-1 and increasing of TIMP-1 will inhibit the degradation of collagen. TIMP-1 is an MMP-1 inhibitor. Collagen affects all of the skin barrier strength and moisturizing. Hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycan is the most important factor in skin moisture. Hyaluronic acid is known as natural moisturizing factors. And glycosaminoglycan has a water-holding ability of the dermal layer. We studied the effects of salicornia extract for two elements of the above. Hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycan were increased dose-dependently when the treated salicornia extracts. The experimental results are suggested to enhance the skin barrier by increasing cornified envelope, transglutaminase-1, involucrin, filaggrin, TIMP-1 and decreasing matrix metalloproteinase-1. Also, the experimental results are confirmed to enhance the moisturizing by increasing hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycan. As a result, salicornia extreact is considered to the development as moisturizing cosmetics by skin barrier strengthening function.